Lee Calcote

Head of Technology Strategy

SolarWinds

Using Istio

Girish Ranganathan

Principal Architect

SolarWinds

clouds, containers, functions, applications,  and their management

Girish Ranganathan

Principal Architect,

SolarWinds

Show of Hands

Thank you to our Teaching Assistants!

Phil Estes

Luc Juggery

Microservices

The more, the merrier?

Benefits

First few services are relatively easy

 

 

Democratization of language and technology choice

 

Faster delivery, service teams running independently, rolling updates

Challenges

Next 10 or so may introduce pain

 

 

Language and framework-specific libraries

 

 

Distributed environments, ephemeral infrastructure, out-moded tooling

Which is why...

 I have a container orchestrator.

Core

Capabilities

  • Cluster Management

    • Host Discovery

    • Host Health Monitoring

  • Scheduling

  • Orchestrator Updates and Host Maintenance

  • Service Discovery

  • Networking and Load Balancing

  • Stateful Services

  • Multi-Tenant, Multi-Region

Additional

Key Capabilities

  • Application Health and Performance Monitoring

  • Application Deployments

  • Application Secrets

minimal capabilities required to qualify as a container orchestrator

Which is why...

 I have an API gateway.

Microservices API Gateways

What do we need?

• Observability

• Logging
• Metrics
• Tracing

• Traffic Control

• Resiliency

• Efficiency
• Security

Policy

a Service Mesh

What is a Service Mesh?

a dedicated layer for managing service-to-service communication

So, a microservices platform?

obviously.

Orchestrators don't bring all that you need

and neither do service meshes,

but they do get you closer.

Missing: application lifecycle management, but not by much

partially.

a services-first network

Missing: distributed debugging; provide nascent visibility (topology)

DEV

OPS

Layer 5

where Dev and Ops meet

Problem: too much infrastructure code in services

Why use a Service Mesh?

to avoid...

  • Bloated service code

  • Duplicating work to make services production-ready

    • Load balancing, auto scaling, rate limiting, traffic routing...

  • Inconsistency across services

    • Retry, tls, failover, deadlines, cancellation, etc., for each language, framework

    • Siloed implementations lead to fragmented, non-uniform policy application and difficult debugging

  • Diffusing responsibility of service management

Help with Modernization

 

  • Can modernize your IT inventory without:

    • Rewriting your applications

    • Adopting microservices, regular services are fine

    • Adopting new frameworks

    • Moving to the cloud

address the long-tail of IT services

Get there for free

Workshop Materials

Meshery

visit layer5.io  for more

service mesh playground

Lab 1- Deploying Kubernetes

  • Open PWK

  • Deploy master node

    • use external DNS

    • save your `kubeadm join` command output

  • Install overlay networking

  • Add two more nodes to the cluster

What is Istio?

an open platform to connect, manage, and secure microservices

  • Observability

  • Resiliency

  • Traffic Control

  • Security

  • Policy Enforcement

@IstioMesh

Observability

what gets people hooked on service metrics

Goals

  • Metrics without instrumenting apps

  • Consistent metrics across fleet

  • Trace flow of requests across services

  • Portable across metric back-end providers

You get a metric!  You get a metric!  Everyone gets a metric!

© 2018 SolarWinds Worldwide, LLC. All rights reserved.

Traffic Control

control over chaos

  • Traffic splitting
    • L7 tag based routing?
  • Traffic steering
    • Look at the contents of a request and route it to a specific set of instances.
  • Ingress and egress routing

Resilency

 

  • Systematic fault injection
  • Timeouts and Retries with timeout budget

  • Circuit breakers and Health checks

  • Control connection pool size and request load

 

content-based traffic steering

Istio Architecture

Istio Architecture

Control Plane

Data Plane

  • Touches every packet/request in the system.
  • Responsible for service discovery, health checking, routing, load balancing, authentication, authorization, and observability.
  • Provides policy and configuration for services in the mesh.
  • Takes a set of isolated stateless sidecar proxies and turns them into a service mesh.
  • Does not touch any packets/requests in the system.

Pilot

Citadel

Mixer

Control Plane

Data Plane

istio-system namespace

policy check

Foo Pod

Proxy Sidecar

Service Foo

tls certs

discovery & config

Foo Container

Bar Pod

Proxy Sidecar

Service Bar

Bar Container

Out-of-band telemetry propagation

telemetry

 

reports

Control flow during request processing

application traffic

Application traffic

application namespace

telemetry reports

Istio Architecture

What's Pilot for?

provides service discovery to sidecars

manages sidecar configuration

Pilot

Citadel

Control Plane

the head of the ship

Mixer

istio-system namespace

system of record for service mesh

}

provides abstraction from underlying platforms

What's Mixer for?

  • Point of integration with infrastructure back ends
    • Intermediates between Istio and back ends, under operator control
    • Enables platform and environment mobility
  • Responsible for policy evaluation and telemetry reporting
    • Provides granular control over operational policies and telemetry
  • Has a rich configuration model
    • Intent-based config abstracts most infrastructure concerns

Pilot

Citadel

Mixer

Control Plane

istio-system namespace

an attribute-processing and routing machine

operator-focused

  1. Precondition checking
  2. Quota management
  3. Telemetry reporting

Mixer

Mixer

Control Plane

Data Plane

istio-system namespace

Foo Pod

Proxy Sidecar

Service Foo

Foo Container

Out-of-band telemetry propagation

Control flow during request processing

application traffic

Application traffic

application namespace

telemetry reports

an attribute processing engine

R

What's Citadel for?

  • Verifiable identity
    • Issues certs
    • Certs distributed to service proxies
    • Mounted as a Kubernetes   secret
  • Secure naming / addressing
  • Traffic encryption

Pilot

Citadel

Control Plane

security at scale

Mixer

istio-system namespace

security by default

Orchestrate Key & Certificate:

  • Generation
  • Deployment
  • Rotation
  • Revocation

 

®

Lab 2 - Deploying Istio

  1. Installing Istio
  2. Setting up `istioctl`

  3. Verify install
  4. Configuring add-ons

Lab 2.2 - Configuring Mixer Add-ons and Adapters

Istio Adapter for SolarWinds

Open Source Adapters and Add-ons

(servicegraph)

Lab 3 - Deploying Sample App

  1. Multi-language, multi-service application
  2. Manual sidecar injection

  3. Verify install

Lab 3 - BookInfo Sample App

Reviews v1

Reviews Pod

Reviews v2

Reviews v3

Product Pod

Details Container

Details Pod

Ratings Container

Ratings Pod

Product Container

Reviews Service

Lab 3 - BookInfo Sample App

Reviews v1

Reviews Pod

Reviews v2

Reviews v3

Product Pod

Details Container

Details Pod

Ratings Container

Ratings Pod

Product Container

Nginx sidecar

Nginx sidecar

Nginx sidecar

Nginx sidecar

Nginx sidecar

Reviews Service

Nginx sidecar

Envoy ingress

Extensibility of Istio

Envoy, Linkerd, Nginx, Conduit

Swapping Proxies

Service Proxy Sidecar

- A C++ based L4/L7 proxy

- Low memory footprint

- In production at Lyft™

Capabilities:

  • API driven config updates → no reloads
  • Zone-aware load balancing w/ failover
  • Traffic routing and splitting
  • Health checks, circuit breakers, timeouts, retry budgets, fault injection…
  • HTTP/2 & gRPC
  • Transparent proxying
  • Designed for observability

 

the included battery

Data Plane

Pod

Proxy sidecar

App Container

Why use another service proxy?

Use based on your operational expertise and need for battle-tested proxy—you may be looking for caching, WAF, or other functionality available in NGINX Plus

If you're already running Linkerd™ and want to start adopting Istio control APIs like CheckRequest

Conduit not currently designed as a general-purpose proxy, but lightweight and focused with extensibility via gRPC™ plugin

Currently

  • Support for rules, policies, mtls encryption, monitoring, and tracing
  • Compatible with Mixer adaptors
  • Transparent sidecar injection
  • Compatible with Istio 0.7.1

Roadmap

  • Support for gRPC traffic
  • Support for ingress proxy
  • Support for Quota Checks
  • Expanding the mesh beyond Kubernetes

See sidecar-related limitations as well as supported traffic management rules --> here .

Considered beta quality

Soliciting feedback and participation from community

Istio and nginMesh

Architecture

agent

Pilot

Auth

Mixer

Control Plane

  • Translator agent Istio to Nginx (in go)
  • Loadable module Nginx to Mixer (in rust)

 

config file

Data Plane

Mixer Module

"istio-proxy" container

route rules

tcp server

istio-system namespace

check

report

listener

dest

module

tcp

http

Out-of-band telemetry propagation

Control flow during request processing

application traffic

application traffic

http servers

Lab 4 - Expose BookInfo via Istio Ingress Gateway

  1. Inspecting the Istio Ingress Gateway
  2. Configure Istio Ingress Gateway for Bookinfo
  3. Inspect the Istio proxy of the productpage pod

Envoy ingress

Lab 5 - Telemetry

  1. Generate Load on Bookinfo
  2. View in monitoring tools

Pilot

Citadel

Mixer

Control Plane

istio-system namespace

AppOptics™

  • Uses pluggable adapters to extend its functionality
    • Adapters run within the Mixer process
  • Adapters are modules that interface to infrastructure backends
    • (logging, metrics, quotas, etc.)
  • Multi-interface adapters are possible
    • (e.g., SolarWinds® adapter sends logs and metrics)

Mixer Adapters

types: logs, metrics, access control, quota

Papertrail™

Prometheus™

Stackdriver™

Open Policy Agent

Grafana™

Fluentd

Statsd

®

Mixer

Mixer

Control Plane

Data Plane

istio-system namespace

Foo Pod

Proxy sidecar

Service Foo

Foo Container

Out-of-band telemetry propagation

Control flow during request processing

application traffic

application traffic

application namespace

telemetry reports

an attribute processing engine

Lab 6 - Distributed Tracing

  1. View Traces

Lab 7 - Request Routing and Canary Testing

  1. Configure the default route for all services to V1
  2. Content based routing
  3. Canary Testing - Traffic Shifting
     

Timeouts & Retries

Web

Service Foo

Timeout = 600ms
Retries = 3

Timeout = 300ms
Retries = 3

Timeout = 900ms
Retries = 3

Service Bar

Database

Timeout = 500ms
Retries = 3

Timeout = 300ms
Retries = 3

Timeout = 900ms
Retries = 3

Deadlines

Web

Service Foo

Deadline = 600ms

Deadline = 496ms

Service Bar

Database

Deadline = 428ms

Deadline=180ms

Elapsed=104ms

Elapsed=68ms

Elapsed=248ms

Lab 8 - Fault Injection and Rate-Limiting

  1. Inject a route rule to create a fault using HTTP delay
  2. Inject a route rule to create a fault using HTTP abort
  3. Verify fault injection

Lab 9 - Mutual TLS & Identity Verification

  1. Verify mTLS
  2. Understanding SPIFFE

Lab 10 - Circuit Breakig

  1. Deploy a client for the app
    1. With manual sidecar injection:
  2. Initial test calls from client to server
  3. Time to trip the circuit

Now Available

compliments of NGINX

Lee Calcote

Thank you. Questions?

layer5io.slack.com

Girish Ranganathan

Phil Estes

Luc Juggery

Demo

Let's look at the Istio canonical sample app.

                                kubectl version
kubectl get ns
kubectl apply -f ../istio-appoptics-0.5.1-solarwinds-v01.yaml
kubectl apply -f ./install/kubernetes/istio-sidecar-injector.yaml

Check environment; deploy Istio

                                kubectl get ns
watch kubectl get po,svc -n istio-system
kubectl apply -f <(istioctl kube-inject -f samples/bookinfo/kube/bookinfo.yaml)

Confirm deployment Istio; deploy sample app

                                watch kubectl get po,svc
kubectl describe po/ | more
echo "http://$(kubectl get nodes -o template --template=''):$(kubectl get svc istio-ingress -n istio-system -o jsonpath='{.spec.ports[0].nodePort}')/productpage"

Confirm sample app

Demo

running Istio

Demo

running Istio

                                echo "http://$(kubectl get nodes -o template --template=''):$(kubectl get svc istio-ingress -n istio-system -o jsonpath='{.spec.ports[0].nodePort}')/productpage"

See "reviews" v1, v2, and v3

                                # From Docker's perspective
docker ps | grep istio-proxy

# From Kubernetes' perspective
kubectl get po  
kubectl describe <a pod>

Verify mesh deployment

                                # exec into 'istio-proxy'
kubectl exec -it <a pod> -c istio-proxy /bin/bash

Connect to proxy sidecar

                                # Generate load for Mixer telemetry adapter
docker run --rm istio/fortio load -c 1 -t 10m \
`echo "http://$(kubectl get nodes -o template --template=''):$(kubectl get svc istio-ingress -n istio-system -o jsonpath='{.spec.ports[0].nodePort}')/productpage"`

Verify mesh configuration

Demo

running Istio

                                #Deploy new configuration to Nginx
istioctl create -f ./samples/bookinfo/kube/route-rule-all-v1.yaml 
istioctl delete -f ./samples/bookinfo/kube/route-rule-all-v1.yaml

#A/B testing for user "lee"
kubectl apply -f ./samples/bookinfo/kube/route-rule-reviews-test-v2.yaml

Apply traffic routing policy

See Mixer telemetry

Istio Adapter for SolarWinds